جنسیت در باستان‌شناسی و باستان‌شناسی جنسیتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکده‌ی علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استاد گروه باستان‌شناسی، دانشکده‌ی علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 استادیار گروه باستان‌شناسی، دانشکده‌ی علوم انسانی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

بیشتر باستان‌شناسان تا میانه‌ی قرن بیستم، نیمی از گروه‌های انسانی یعنی؛ «زنان» و نقش‌های گوناگونی که در مسیر دگرگشت جوامع انسانی داشتند را نادیده گرفته‌ بودند. زنان همچون مادرانِ محدود به حوزه‌ی خانگی درنظر گرفته می‌شدند. تقسیم کار جنسیتی و خانواده‌ی هسته‌ای همچون رویدادی طبیعی درنظر گرفته می‌شد و شکار مردان، شتاب‌دهنده‌ی نخستین، در دگرگشت انسان پنداشته می‌شد. جنبش‌های زنان در دهه‌ها‌ی 1960 و 1970، دیدگاه‌های دگرگونی از تحول جوامع انسانی را پدید آورد که بر نقش‌های زنان متمرکز شد. اگر در آغاز، فمینیست‌ها دغدغه‌ی جست‌وجوی زنان در منابع را داشتند، امروزه بسیار فراتر رفته و پنداشت‌ها از مفاهیم جهانیِ جنس، جنسیت و فردیت را به ‌چالش می‌کشند. ولی بسیاری از باستان‌شناسان از برچسب فمینیست فاصله می‌گیرند و بر این باورند که پژوهش‌های جنسیتی دامنه‌ی گسترده‌تری از مقوله‌های جنسیتی را دربر می‌گیرد. در خاور نزدیک، پژوهش‌های جنسیتی از دهه‌ی 1990 به‌گونه‌ای جدی پی گرفته شد و همچنان نیاز به پژوهش‌ها با کاربست نگره‌‌ها و روش‌های نظام‌مند به‌روشنی احساس می‌شود. شوربختانه در باستان‌شناسی ایران، موضوع جنسیت و زنان تا اندازه‌ی زیادی نادیده گرفته شده است و پژوهش‌های انگشت‌شماری انجام شده است. در این نوشتار به بازگویی شکل‌گیری پژوهش‌های زنان و جنسیت در باستان‌شناسی می‌پردازیم. با وجود دامنه‌ی گسترده‌ای از رویکردها، هیچ نگره‌ یا مکتب فکری واحدی به جایگاه برتری نرسیده است، و هنوز هم در بسیاری از پژوهش‌ها نگاه مرد محور جریان اصلی پژوهش را پیش می‌برند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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